Response 1 : Levels of prevention response
The purpose of this reply post is to briefly summarize a scholarly article related to primary prevention that provides additional information to the discussion.
As discussed in your post, there are five levels of prevention primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary prevention (Kisling & Das, 2020). Whilst all of them are important, primary prevention is the principle level concerned with adult learning. Primary prevention measures target individuals or at-risk populations with an aim to halt disease development.
Moreno-peral et al. (2015) conducted a meta-ethnographic synthesis on primary care patientsâ€™ perspectives of barriers and enablers of primary prevention and health promotion. Some of the barriers noted were the lack of culturally competent care. Patients described being instructed to perform actions that were contrary to their beliefs and or values. Other patients reported that their providers spent very little time with them during visits and that this time was spent discussing the issues that brought them in and treatment options and rarely on prevention. Some patients discussed the fact that some primary prevention actions such as eating healthy and physical activity were not feasible for various reasons. For example, some stated they had financial insecurities and their priority was bills and not healthier food options which were pricier. Additionally, some lived in areas that were not walkable or in very tight living quarters that they felt exercise was not conducive thus hampering their ability to increase physical activity.
Some enablers of primary prevention were facilitation of available community resources such as financial, transportation, and food bank connections that made it possible to adopt some primary prevention teachings such as healthier food choices. Other enablers mentioned were consistent primary care that allowed for seamless care and trust-building between patients and their providers. Some patients noted that individualized care that factored in their values, beliefs and limitations encouraged their autonomy and empowered them to change. Ali & Katz (2015) also found that culturally competent care and perceived physician interest and concern was more successful in encouraging behavior change and knowledge retention.
Researchers theorize that behavioral and lifestyle choices account for most of the premature mortality in the United States as they are linked to the development of chronic conditions such as heart, kidney, and lung diseases (Ali & Katz, 2015). As such, primary prevention is important because these efforts are directed towards disease prevention and encourages healthier lifestyles and behaviors. However, the success of primary prevention strategies hinges on effective communication, proper knowledge dissemination, cultural congruent care and the willingness and ability of the patient to make the appropriate changes.
Ali, A., & Katz, D. L. (2015). Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: How Integrative Medicine Fits. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(5), S230â€“S240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2015.07.019
Kisling, L., & Das, J. (2020). Prevention Strategies. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537222/
Moreno-Peral, P., Conejo-CerÃ³n, S., FernÃ¡ndez, A., Berenguera, A., MartÃnez-AndrÃ©s, M., Pons-ViguÃ©s, M., Motrico, E., RodrÃguez-MartÃn, B., BellÃ³n, J. A., & Rubio-Valera, M. (2015). Primary care patientsâ€™ perspectives of barriers and enablers of primary prevention and health promotion-a meta-ethnographic synthesis. PloS One, 10(5), e0125004. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.
Response 2: Keeping patients healthy and preventative care response
Great post on immunizations and the issues that occur in the United States. I agree that there are quite a few barriers to patients receiving the immunizations they need to stay healthy. The issue begins in childhood and continues into adulthood. According to Ventola (2016) vaccination noncompliance begins when parents delay immunization schedules or decline them because of medical, religious or socioeconomic reasons. The article by C. L. Ventola titled â€œImmunization in the United States: Recommendations, Barriers and Measures to Improve Complianceâ€ discusses the importance of vaccinations and the barriers in compliance for vaccinations.The author states that health care providers must be able to educate the patients on the importance of vaccinations. One of the issues that occur is the lack of access to the vaccinations. Anderson (2014) states that often times, children miss vaccinations because of the situation that their parents are in. Children who are raised in poverty-stricken homes, are less likely to receive their vaccines when needed. According to Ventola, when parents are going through hard times such as job loss, divorce or financial troubles, they do not always keep up with their childâ€™s well visits. The parents may also have lack of transportations or the clinic hours are inconvenient with their word schedule (2016).When parents delay vaccines or use alternate vaccine schedules, they are creating a resurgence of disease that can be prevented (2016). This puts many different people at risk. Many parents believe that their children are protected because of the herd immunity, but this is not the case in all situations. Parents are reading about side effects and problems that other children have had with vaccines, and that makes them apprehensive to vaccine their own children (Anderson, 2014). I think that it is so important as an APRN to educate parents on the misconceptions of vaccines. Vaccine compliance begins with parents and is needed so that it can continue into the childâ€™s adulthood. I feel that many people have relied on other people vaccinating their children to keep their own child safe, and that is a problem.ReferencesAnderson, E. L. (2014). Recommended solutions to the barriers to immunization in children and adults. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179470/pdf/ms111_p0344.pdfVentola, C. L. (2016). Immunization in the united states: recommendations, barriers, and measures to improve compliance. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4927017/pdf/ptj4107426.pdf